Was Crocodile stronger at Marineford? Or was he holding back in Alabasta?

 During the Alabasta arc, Crocodile displayed a level of power that was initially considered overwhelming by the Straw Hat Pirates. He possessed the Logia-type Devil Fruit called the Suna Suna no Mi (Sand-Sand Fruit), which granted him the ability to control and transform into sand. He had a reputation as a Shichibukai and controlled the desert kingdom of Alabasta from the shadows. His strength was showcased through his battles with Luffy and others. At Marineford, Crocodile was present as part of the war that took place at Marine Headquarters. While he did participate in the battle, he didn't display the same level of dominance as some other powerful characters present. This has led fans to speculate that he might not have been as strong as initially portrayed in Alabasta. It's important to note that power scaling and character abilities can be subject to interpretation and development by the author. Oda often keeps details deliberately open-ended to keep the story intriguing.

How did European swords change over time?

 European swords have undergone significant changes in design and function over time. Some of the key ways in which European swords have evolved include:

Materials: European swords have been made from a variety of materials throughout history, including bronze, iron, steel, and other alloys. The quality and type of materials used have had a significant impact on the strength, durability, and performance of the swords.

Blade design: European swords have featured a wide range of blade designs, including straight, curved, single-edged, and double-edged blades. The shape and size of the blade were often determined by the intended use of the sword, such as cutting, thrusting, or both.

Hilt design: The hilt, or handle, of a European sword has evolved over time to provide a secure grip and balance for the wielder. This has included the development of various hilt styles, such as the crossguard, the quillons, and the pommel.

Function: European swords have been used for a variety of purposes throughout history, including as weapons in warfare, as symbols of power and authority, and in ceremonial and ritual contexts. The design and function of swords have often been closely tied to their intended use.

Production techniques: The methods used to manufacture European swords have also evolved over time, including the use of new materials and technologies to improve the strength, sharpness, and durability of the swords.

Overall, European swords have undergone significant changes in design and function over time, reflecting the changing needs and priorities of the societies that produced them.